Air entering the lungs passes through narrow tubes called bronchioles. In asthma and bronchitis the bronchioles become narrower, either as a result of contraction of the muscles in their walls, or as a result of mucus congestion. This narrowing of the bronchioles obstructs the flow of air into and out of the lungs and causes breathlessness.
The respiratory system consists of the lungs and the air passages, such as the trachea (windpipe) and bronchi, by which air reaches them. Through the process of inhaling and exhaling air (breathing) the body obtains the oxygennecessary for survival, and to expel carbon dioxide, which is the waste product of the basic human biological process.
The human brain contains more than 100 billion nerve cells (neurons). These nerve cells receive electrochemical impulses from everywhere in the body. They interpret these impulses and send responsive signals back to various glands and muscles.
Medicines used to treat or prevent vomiting or the feeling of sickness (nausea) are known as anti-emetics. Vomiting is a reflex action for getting rid of harmful substances, but it may also be a symptom of disease. Vomiting and nausea are often caused by a digestive tract infection, travel sickness, pregnancy, or vertigo (a balance disorder involving the inner ear).
Migraine is a term applied to recurrent severe headaches affecting only one side of the head and caused by changes in the blood vessels around the brain and scalp. They may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting and preceded by warning signs, usually an impression of flashing lights or numbness and tingling in the arms.
Dementia is a decline in mental function severe enough to affect normal social or occupational activities. It can be sudden and irreversible, due to a stroke or head injury for example. It can also develop gradually and may be a feature of disorders such as poor circulation in the brain, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease.
Parkinsonism is a general term used to describe shaking of the head and limbs, muscular stiffness, an expressionless face, and inability to control or initiate movement. It is caused by an imbalance of chemicals in the brain; the effect of acetylcholine is increased by a reduction in the action of dopamine.
Electrical signals from nerve cells in the brain are normally finely coordinated to produce smooth movements of the arms and legs, but these signals can become irregular and chaotic, and trigger the disorderly muscular activity and mental changes that are characteristic of a seizure (also called a fit or convulsion). The most common cause of seizures is epilepsy, which occurs as a result of brain disease or injury.
Changes in mood are normal, but when a person's mood swings become grossly exaggerated, with peaks of elation or mania alternating with troughs of depression, it becomes an illness known as bipolar disorder or manic depression. It is usually treated with salts of lithium, a medicine that reduces the intensity of the mania, lifts the depression, and lessens the frequency of mood swings.
Psychosis is a term used to describe mental disorders that prevent the sufferer from thinking clearly, recognizing reality, and acting rationally. These disorders include schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (manic depression). The precise causes of these disorders are unknown, although a number of factors, including stress, heredity, and brain injury, may be involved.
Occasional moods of discouragement or sadness are normal and usually pass quickly. However, more severe depression that is accompanied by despair, lethargy, loss of sex drive, and often poor appetite may call for medical attention. Such depression can arise from life stresses such as the death of someone close, an illness, or sometimes from no apparent cause.
A certain amount of stress can be beneficial, providing a stimulus to action. But too much will often result in anxiety, which might be described as fear or apprehension not caused by real danger.
Difficulty in getting to sleep or staying asleep (insomnia) has many causes. Most people have sleepless nights from time to time, usually due to a temporary worry or discomfort from a minor illness. Persistent sleeplessness can be caused by psychological problems including anxiety or depression, or the pain and discomfort of a physical disorder.
Analgesics (painkillers) are medicines that relieve pain. Since pain is not a disease but a symptom, long-term relief depends on treatment of the underlying cause. For example, the pain of toothache can be relieved by medicines but can be cured only by appropriate dental treatment.
Loperamide is used in the treatment of diarrhea. Loperamide is an anti-diarrhoeal medication. It works by slowing down the contraction of the intestines thereby decreasing the speed at which the contents pass through it. This allows more time for reabsorption of fluids and nutrients, making the stools more solid and less frequent.
Metoclopramide is used in the treatment of nausea, vomiting and indigestion. Metoclopramide is a prokinetic. It works on the region in the brain that controls vomiting. It also acts on the upper digestive tract to increase the movement of the stomach and intestines, allowing food to move more easily through the stomach.
Paracetamol, also known as acetaminophen and APAP (acetyl-para-aminophenol), is a medication used to treat pain and fever. Paracetamol is generally safe at recommended doses. The recommended maximum daily dose for an adult is 3 (3000 mg) grams. It does not have significant anti-inflammatory activity. Taking more paracetamol could cause damage to your liver.